Answer Question 1 (compulsory) from Part I, and five questions from Part II, choosing three questions from Section A and two questions from Section B.
Answer all questions.
Answer briefly each of the questions (i) to (x). [10 × 2]
(i) State two features of a unitary state.
(ii) Explain one way in which the Constitution of the United States can be amended.
(iii) State one reason why minorities should be properly represented in legislatures.
(iv) Explain what is meant by the constituent function of the Legislature.
(v) State any two executive powers of the President of India.
(vi) What is the composition of the Supreme Court of India?
(vii) What is meant by single citizenship as a salient feature of the Constitution of India?
(viii) Cite one example of implementation of a Directive Principle.
(ix) Which fundamental right is a remedy for the violation of other fundamental rights?
(x) Explain the meaning of communalism, in the Indian context.
Answer any three questions.
(a) Discuss any three features of a liberal democratic state. 
(b) Explain any three features of a parliamentary form of government. 
(a) What is meant by the First-Past-the-Post system? Explain one advantage and one drawback of this system. 
(b) Explain two advantages of a bi-party system. 
(a) Explain three important functions of the United States Senate. 
(b) What are the relative positions of the Lok Sabha and the United States House of Representatives in their respective systems? Discuss. 
(a) Discuss three important functions of the Executive. 
(b) Compare the positions of the President of India and the President of the United States. 
(a) Explain the original jurisdiction and appellate jurisdiction of the Supreme Court of India. 
(b) How is judicial independence ensured in the Constitution of the United States? 
Answer any two questions.
(a) With reference to the Constitution of India, discuss the importance of the Preamble. 
(b) Explain the rights conferred under the Right to Freedom in Article 19 of the Constitution of India. 
(a) Explain the main features of the 73rd Amendment to the Constitution of India, relating to rural local self-government institutions. 
(b) Suggest three ways to address the challenges faced by Panchayati Raj institutions in India. 
(a) Explain three important causes of regionalism in Indian politics. 
(b) Critically examine three ways in which the prevalence of political violence affects the functioning of Indian democracy.