There is one paper of two hours duration carrying 80 marks and Internal Assessment of 20 marks. The question paper consists of Part I and Part II.

Part I (compulsory) consists of two questions. Question 1 consists of short answer questions from the entire syllabus and Question 2 consists of a question based on Map. You are expected to answer all questions.

Part II. You are required to choose any five questions.

1. Our World

(i) Earth as a planet

Shape of the earth. Earth as the home of humankind and the conditions that exist.

(ii) Geographic grid - Latitudes & Longitudes

(a) Concept of latitudes: main latitudes, their location with degrees, parallels of latitude and their uses.

(b) Concept of longitudes - Prime Meridian, time (local, standard and time zones, Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) and International Date Line (IDL). Eastern and Western hemisphere.

(c) Using latitudes and longitudes to find location. Calculation of time.

(d) Great Circles and their use.

(iii) Rotation and Revolution

Rotation - direction, speed and its effects (occurrence of day and night, the sun rising in the east and setting in the west, Coriolis effect)

Revolution of the earth and its inclined axis - effects: the variation in the length of the day and night and seasonal changes with Equinoxes and Solstices.

2. Structure of the Earth

(i) Earth's Structure

Core, mantle, crust - meaning, extent and their composition.

(ii) Landforms of the Earth

Mountains, plateaus, plains (definition, types and their formation): Mountains - fold, residual and block. Plateaus - intermont and volcanic. Plains - structural and depositional. Examples from the world and India.

(iii) Rocks - difference between minerals and rocks, types of rocks: igneous, sedimentary, metamorphic, their characteristics and formation; rock cycle.

(iv) Volcanoes

Meaning, Types - active, dormant and extinct. Effects -constructive and destructive. Important volcanic zones of the world.

(v) Earthquakes

Meaning, causes and measurement. Effects: destructive and constructive. Earthquake zones of the World.

(vi) Weathering and Denudation

Meaning, types and effects of weathering. Types: Physical Weathering - block and granular disintegration, exfoliation; Chemical Weathering - oxidation, carbonation, hydration and solution; Biological Weathering - caused by humans, plants and animals.

Meaning and agents of denudation; work of river and wind.

Stages of a river course and associated land forms - V-shaped valley, waterfall, meander and delta.

Wind - deflation hollows and Sand dunes.

3. Hydrosphere

Meaning of hydrosphere.

Tides - formation and pattern.

Ocean Currents - their circulation pattern and effects. (Specifically of Gulf Stream, North Atlantic Drift, Labrador Current, Kuro Shio and Oya Shio.)

4. Atmosphere

(i) Composition and structure of the atmosphere

Troposphere, Stratosphere, Ionosphere and Exosphere; Ozone in the Stratosphere, its depletion. Global warming and its impact.

(ii) Insolation

  • Meaning of insolation and terrestrial radiation.
  • Factors affecting temperature: latitude, altitude, distance from the sea, slope of land, winds and ocean currents.

(iii) Atmospheric Pressure and Winds

  • Meaning and factors that affect atmospheric pressure.
  • Major pressure belts of the world.
  • Factors affecting direction and velocity of wind - pressure gradient, Coriolis Effect.
  • Permanent winds - Trades, Westerlies and Polar Easterlies.
  • Periodic winds - Land and Sea breezes, Monsoons.
  • Local winds - Loo, Chinook, Foehn and Mistral.
  • Variable winds - Cyclones and Anticyclones.
  • Jet Streams- Meaning and importance.

(iv) Humidity

  • Humidity - meaning and difference between relative and absolute humidity.
  • Condensation - forms (clouds, dew, frost, fog and mist).
  • Precipitation - forms (rain, snow, and hail).
  • Types of rainfall - relief/orographic, convectional, cyclonic/ frontal with examples from the different parts of the world.

5. Pollution

(a) Types - air, water (fresh and marine), soil, radiation and noise.

(b) Sources

  • Noise: Traffic, factories, construction sites, loudspeakers, airports.
  • Air: vehicular, industrial, burning of garbage.
  • Water: domestic and industrial waste.
  • Soil: chemical fertilizers, bio medical waste and pesticides.
  • Radiation: X- rays; radioactive fallout from nuclear plants.

(c) Effects - on the environment and human health.

(d) Preventive Measures

Carpools, promotion of public transport, no smoking zone, restricted use of fossil fuels, saving energy and encouragement of organic farming.

6. Natural regions of the World

Location, area climate, natural vegetation and human adaptation.

Equatorial region, Tropical grasslands, Tropical Deserts, Tropical Monsoon, Mediterranean, Temperate grasslands, Taiga and Tundra.

7. Map Work

On an outline map of the World, you are required to locate, mark and name the following:

  1. The major Natural Regions of the world - Equatorial, Tropical Monsoon, Tropical Deserts, Mediterranean type, Tropical grasslands, Temperate grasslands, Taiga and Tundra.

  2. The Oceans, Seas, Gulfs and Straits - all Major Oceans, Caribbean Sea, North Sea, Black Sea, Caspian Sea, South China Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Gulf of Carpentaria, Hudson Bay, Persian Gulf, Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of Guinea, Bering Strait, Strait of Gibraltar, Strait of Malacca.

  3. Rivers - Mississippi, Colorado, Amazon, Paraguay, Nile, Zaire, Niger, Zambezi, Orange, Rhine, Volga, Danube, Murray, Darling, Hwang Ho, Yangtse Kiang, Ob, Indus, Ganga, Mekong, Irrawaddy, Tigris, Euphrates.

  4. Mountains - Rockies, Andes, Appalachian, Alps, Himalayas, Pyrenees, Scandinavian Highlands, Caucasus, Atlas, Drakensburg, Khinghan, Zagros, Urals, Great Dividing Range.

  5. Plateaus - Canadian Shield, Tibetan Plateau, Brazilian Highlands, Patagonian Plateau, Iranian Plateau, Mongolian Plateau.