ICSE Biology Class 8 Syllabus
The syllabus consists of six themes - Transport of Food and Minerals in Plants, Reproduction in Plant and Animals, Ecosystems, Human Body - Endocrine, Circulatory and Nervous Systems, Health and Hygiene, Food Production.
Theme 1: Transport of Food and Minerals in Plants
- Diffusion - definition;
- Osmosis - definition, example, semipermeable membrane, root pressure; active transport.
- Transpiration - definition, importance and factors affecting transpiration.
- Structure and function of Xylem and Phloem in detail;
- Importance of minerals: macro and micro-nutrients; three deficiency diseases caused by lack of these essential nutrients.
Theme 2: Reproduction in Plants and Animals
- Types of Asexual reproduction: Binary fission, budding, fragmentation, spore formation, vegetative propagation, artificial propagation by tissue culture (basic process along with a suitable example of each)
- Sexual reproduction in Plants: Review of parts of a typical flower (4 whorls and their structure and function)
- Pollination: self and cross;
- Agents of pollination: three characteristics of plants pollinated by insects, water and wind (with examples).
- Characteristics of flowers of each kind.
- Fertilization process in brief by flow chart.
- Mention of artificial pollination.
- Sexual reproduction in humans
- Main organs of male and female reproductive system
Theme 3: Ecosystems
- Understanding ecosystems: definition, interaction between biotic and abiotic factors;
- Biotic components consisting of producers, consumers, decomposers. Meaning of food chain. Food web, and pyramid of numbers.
- Interdependence between organisms: symbiosis, parasitism and predation.
- Brief account of abiotic or non-living components such as air, soil, water and climatic factors such as sunlight, temperature, humidity and wind;
- Only, forest ecosystem with its flora and fauna to be taught.
Theme 4: Human Body - Endocrine, Circulatory and Nervous Systems
- Two types of glands - exocrine, endocrine (basic concept and difference);
- Hormone (definition).
- Hormonal glands - (thyroid, adrenal, pancreas, pituitary); location and function of each.
- Following points to be studied in tabular form: name of gland, location in body, secretion, function.
Adolescence and accompanying changes
- Physical and emotional changes in the body during adolescence.
- Importance of personal hygiene.
- Stress management (meaning of stress; ways to tackle stress: yoga, meditation, time management, sports, hobbies, rational thinking etc.)
Revisit learning of earlier class
- Internal structure of heart in detail (including valves, septum; pace maker).
- Schematic diagram of the heart;
- Blood vessels - aorta, pulmonary trunk, coronary artery & vein, vena cava.
- Circulation of blood as double circulation.
- Blood Groups (A, B, AB and O): universal donor and universal acceptor.
- Conditions related to the functioning of the heart: palpitations, cardiac arrest and hyper tension.
- Introduction of lymphatic system as a parallel circulatory system.
Revisit learning of earlier class
- Types of nerves: sensory, motor, mixed (function only). Cranial and spinal nerves (only definition and number).
- Structure of a motor neuron
- Central nervous system (CNS) in detail with its parts and their functions.
- Reflex action: definition and basic terms used to describe reflex action stimulus, response, impulse, receptor, effector); common examples of reflex action.
Theme 5: Health and Hygiene
- A brief idea of communicable diseases (influenza, measles, malaria, dengue, chikungunya, HIV) - causative agents, symptoms and prevention to be dealt with in a tabular form.
- The meaning of vector.
- Method of preventing diseases in general; use of vaccines to be mentioned.
- Vaccination and immunization: the concepts and difference between the two.
- Harmful effects of consuming tobacco, drinking alcohol, taking drugs.
- First aid- meaning.
- First aid given in the following cases: (burns, bleeding, fracture, object in the eye, unconsciousness, swallowing poison, snake bite, stings).
Theme 6: Food Production
- Bacteria: uses of bacteria in food industry.
- Fungi - Importance of mushrooms and yeast in food industry.
- Agriculture: cultivated crops (food-crops and cash crops), crops grown in India.
- Horticulture - vegetables, fruits, decorative plants and flowers.
- Organic farming and green revolution in brief (awareness level).
- Animal husbandry: milk yielding (milch) animals; white revolution; meat providing livestock; draught animals (heavy work); poultry; fish farming (pisiculture); sericulture and apiculture (awareness level).