ICSE Biology Class 8 Syllabus

The syllabus consists of six themes - Transport of Food and Minerals in Plants, Reproduction in Plant and Animals, Ecosystems, Human Body - Endocrine, Circulatory and Nervous Systems, Health and Hygiene, Food Production.

Theme 1: Transport of Food and Minerals in Plants

  • Diffusion - definition;
  • Osmosis - definition, example, semipermeable membrane, root pressure; active transport.
  • Transpiration - definition, importance and factors affecting transpiration.
  • Structure and function of Xylem and Phloem in detail;
  • Importance of minerals: macro and micro-nutrients; three deficiency diseases caused by lack of these essential nutrients.

Theme 2: Reproduction in Plants and Animals

Plants

  • Types of Asexual reproduction: Binary fission, budding, fragmentation, spore formation, vegetative propagation, artificial propagation by tissue culture (basic process along with a suitable example of each)
  • Sexual reproduction in Plants:  Review of parts of a typical flower (4 whorls and their structure and function)
    • Pollination: self and cross;
    • Agents of pollination: three characteristics of plants pollinated by insects, water and wind (with examples).
    • Characteristics of flowers of each kind.
    • Fertilization process in brief by flow chart.
    • Mention of artificial pollination.

Animals

  • Sexual reproduction in humans
  • Main organs of male and female reproductive system

Theme 3: Ecosystems

  • Understanding ecosystems: definition, interaction between biotic and abiotic factors;
  • Biotic components consisting of producers, consumers, decomposers. Meaning of food chain. Food web, and pyramid of numbers.
  • Interdependence between organisms: symbiosis, parasitism and predation.
  • Brief account of abiotic or non-living components such as air, soil, water and climatic factors such as sunlight, temperature, humidity and wind;
  • Only, forest ecosystem with its flora and fauna to be taught.

Theme 4: Human Body - Endocrine, Circulatory and Nervous Systems

Endocrine System

  • Two types of glands - exocrine, endocrine (basic concept and difference);
  • Hormone (definition).
  • Hormonal glands - (thyroid, adrenal, pancreas, pituitary); location and function of each.
  • Following points to be studied in tabular form: name of gland, location in body, secretion, function.

Adolescence and accompanying changes

  • Physical and emotional changes in the body during adolescence.
  • Importance of personal hygiene.
  • Stress management (meaning of stress; ways to tackle stress: yoga, meditation, time management, sports, hobbies, rational thinking etc.)

Circulatory System

Revisit learning of earlier class

  • Internal structure of heart in detail (including valves, septum; pace maker).
  • Schematic diagram of the heart;
  • Blood vessels - aorta, pulmonary trunk, coronary artery & vein, vena cava.
  • Circulation of blood as double circulation.
  • Blood Groups (A, B, AB and O): universal donor and universal acceptor.
  • Conditions related to the functioning of the heart: palpitations, cardiac arrest and hyper tension.
  • Introduction of lymphatic system as a parallel circulatory system.

Nervous System

Revisit learning of earlier class

  • Types of nerves: sensory, motor, mixed (function only). Cranial and spinal nerves (only definition and number).
  • Structure of a motor neuron
  • Central nervous system (CNS) in detail with its parts and their functions.
  • Reflex action: definition and basic terms used to describe reflex action stimulus, response, impulse, receptor, effector); common examples of reflex action.

Theme 5: Health and Hygiene

Diseases

  • A brief idea of communicable diseases (influenza, measles, malaria, dengue, chikungunya, HIV) - causative agents, symptoms and prevention to be dealt with in a tabular form.
  • The meaning of vector.
  • Method of preventing diseases in general; use of vaccines to be mentioned.
  • Vaccination and immunization: the concepts and difference between the two.
  • Harmful effects of consuming tobacco, drinking alcohol, taking drugs.

First Aid

  • First aid- meaning.
  • First aid given in the following cases: (burns, bleeding, fracture, object in the eye, unconsciousness, swallowing poison, snake bite, stings).

Theme 6: Food Production

  • Bacteria: uses of bacteria in food industry.
  • Fungi - Importance of mushrooms and yeast in food industry.
  • Agriculture: cultivated crops (food-crops and cash crops), crops grown in India.
  • Horticulture - vegetables, fruits, decorative plants and flowers.
  • Organic farming and green revolution in brief (awareness level).
  • Animal husbandry: milk yielding (milch) animals; white revolution; meat providing livestock; draught animals (heavy work); poultry; fish farming (pisiculture); sericulture and apiculture (awareness level).