There are two papers in the subject:
- Paper I - Theory: 3 hours ; 70 marks
- Paper II- Practical Work ; 30 marks
Paper - I (Theory): 70 Marks
Part 1 (20 marks) consists of compulsory short answer questions testing knowledge, application and skills relating to elementary / fundamental aspects of the entire syllabus. Part II (50 marks) consists of eight questions out of which you are required to answer five questions, each carrying 10 marks.
1. Origin and Development of Sociology and Anthropology
(i) Emergence of Sociology and Anthropology as Disciplines.
Discuss the definition, origin and growth of the two disciplines briefly.
Define the nature and scope of Sociology.
(ii) Classical Thinkers and Theories.
Contribution of the Classical Thinkers on the basis of their theories.
Discuss the contribution of the following on the basis of the given theories:
- Auguste Comte – Positivism;
- Herbert Spencer – Theory of Evolution (use Social Darwinism, Organic Analogy);
- Emile Durkheim - Structural Functionalism (use the concepts sacred and profane, division of labour, solidarity)
- Max Weber - Interpretive Sociology (bureaucracy, types of authority);
- Karl Marx - Conflict Theory (class and class struggle).
(iii) Sociology and other Social Sciences.
An understanding of the interrelationship between Sociology and other Social Sciences
Relationship between Sociology and other Social Sciences (similarities and differences) - Political Science, Economics, Anthropology (Physical Anthropology; Socio-cultural Anthropology), History, Psychology, Philosophy.
2. Research Methodology
Importance of research methodology in Sociology and Anthropology.
Definition and importance of social research.
Methods of Sociology and Anthropology - Comparative method, statistical method, field work and case study method, historical method and scientific method (formulation of the problem, observation, classification, hypothesis, verification, and prediction).
Tools of data collection (primary and secondary): A brief idea of research tools used - questionnaire, interview, observation, documentary research. Definition, merits and demerits of the above.
3. Basic Concepts
(i) Individual and Society.
Understanding the role of an individual and his relation to society.
Definition of Society; characteristics of Society - to be explained in detail.
Discuss the definition, characteristics, problems and differences between Rural and Urban Society.
(ii) Socialization - Man as a Social Animal.
Human being as a rational and social partner in environmental actions.
Definition and characteristics of socialization; primary and secondary agencies of socialization (family, school, society, peer group, media, religion).
Definition of natural selection, social selection and heredity.
Nature vs. nurture - to be discussed briefly (Explain man as a social being, using the examples of the feral cases of Genie, Amla and Kamala and Anna. Documentaries on Genie and Anna may be shown as resource material).
Notion and attributes of culture.
Definition and characteristics of culture; brief explanation of the features of norms, folkways, mores, customs, values. Definitions only of material and nonmaterial culture, culture lag and culture conflict.
A brief look at some past traditions and customs which reflect a close understanding of material and nonmaterial culture e.g. sacred groves, johads, eris (water tanks of South India), farmers crops and growing season in complete harmony with the local environment and seasons, etc.
4. Social Structure
(i) Social groups
Definition and features of Community and Association, differences between Community and Association; definition and features of Primary Groups and Secondary Groups, differences between Primary Groups and Secondary Groups; definition and features of Organized and Unorganized groups (public, mobs, crowd and crowd behaviour), differences between Organized and Unorganized groups; definition only of the Reference group, Ingroup, Out-group.
(ii) Status and Role
Definition of status; types of status - ascribed and achieved: definition, features and differences between the two; determinants of status.
Definition of role, role conflict and role stereotype.
The above to be explained with the help of examples with special reference to the Looking Glass Self Theory by C.H. Cooley (definition and brief explanation through one example).
(iii) Social processes.
Co-operation, competition and conflict - their definitions, characteristics and differences.
5. Social Problems
Over population (with focus on poverty, unemployment, illiteracy), Child Labour, Juvenile Delinquency, Problems of the Aged and Problems of the Differently Abled (social and cultural attitude and built environment).
All the above social problems to be discussed in detail highlighting their causes and remedial measures.
Additionally, problems of the aged and problems of the differently abled to be discussed with reference to social, cultural environment and the infrastructure - attitudes, special requirements e.g. ramps, signage.
6. Indian Sociologists
Contribution of the Indian Thinkers in the field of Sociology: Radha Kamal Mukherjee, N.K. Bose, Irawati Karve, G.S. Ghurye, M.N. Srinivas.
The following contributions of each of the thinkers are to be discussed:
Radha Kamal Mukherjee - Social Ecology;
G.S. Ghurye – Theories of Origin of the Caste system;
N.K. Bose – The Hindu Method of Tribal absorption;
Irawati Karve – Kinship and the family;
M.N. Srinivas – The Concept of Brahminization and Sankritization.