Part I (20 marks) consists of compulsory short answer questions testing fundamental factual knowledge and understanding of the entire syllabus.

Part II (60 marks) is divided into two sections, Section A and Section B, each consisting of five questions. Each question carries 12 marks. You are required to attempt two questions from each Section and one question from either Section A or Section B. A total of five questions has to be attempted from Part II.


1. Growth of Nationalism

(i) Swadeshi Movement Partition of Bengal and anti-Partition Movement, leading to the Swadeshi and Boycott Movement.

(ii) Revolutionary Nationalism The growth of revolutionary activities should explain what led to the development and concentrate on some well-known organizations: Abhinav Bharat, Yugantar, Anushilan Samiti.

2. Emergence of the colonial economy.

(i) Development of the means of transport and communication. Transportation: a brief look at the development of the railways - other means can simply be mentioned.

(ii) Disruption of traditional economy: British revenue policy: impact on peasants and artisans; poverty and famines. A general account of the impact of the British rule on peasants and artisans. Revenue policy: the Permanent Settlement and Ryotwari Settlement should be done in some detail.

(iii) Development of modern industries. An account of the growth of large scale machine based industries in western India.

(iv) Colonial Forest Policy - impact on local communities. The Forest Acts of 1865 and 1894 to be studied critically.

3. Social and Religious Movements

(i) Impact of the modern ideas in Europe on Indian administrators. The characteristics of modern thought (liberalism, utilitarianism) to be very briefly explained as a background to British policy.

(ii) Reform Movements - Brahmo Samaj, Arya Samaj, Aligarh Movement. A critical look at each of the above movements.

(iii) Struggle against caste – Jyotiba Phule, Narayan Guru, Veerasalingam. A brief outline of their contributions.

(iv) The Women’s Question The following Acts to be studied: Abolition of Sati 1829, Widow Remarriage 1856, Female Infanticide Prevention Act, 1870, Age of Consent, 1891. These have to be read critically to evaluate their impact on women.

4. Protest Movements against Colonial Rule.

A brief account of the Indigo Uprising (1859), Deccan riots (1875), Munda Uprising (1899-1900) and the response of the colonial authority.

5. Gandhian Nationalism

(i) The launching of the passive resistance movement by Gandhi; background and main features of the movement.

A general background of the development of Gandhian ideas of non-violence and satyagraha in South Africa. Brief summaries of the three localised satyagrahas: Champaran, Ahmedabad, and Kheda district.

(ii) Agitation against the Rowlatt Act, Jalianwala Bagh (1919), Khilafat and Non-Cooperation Movement (1919-1922).

The reasons behind the Rowlatt Act and its main terms to be studied in brief. A general account of the satyagraha against the Act, leading to Jalianwala Bagh and the aftermath.

The launching of the Khilafat and the Non-Cooperation Movements; why Gandhi decided to support Khilafat. There should be a connected chronological account of the movement and its suspension after Chauri Chaura.

(iii) Simon Commission: its boycott and the demand for Dominion Status by 1929; Lahore session and declaration of 'Poorna Swaraj' as the Congress objective.

The reasons for sending the Commission in 1927 as well as its boycott should be briefly explained. A general account of the agitation against the Commission as well as a very brief account of the Nehru Report. The Lahore Session should be set against the expiry of the deadline by the Congress; the main points of the Poorna Swaraj Resolution.

(iv) Civil Disobedience Movement (1930-1934).

A general account of the development of the Movement and different strands within the Movement; main features of the Gandhi-Irwin Pact. The 1st and 2nd Round Table Conferences can be put very briefly in context. The resumption of the Movement, the Poona Pact (in the context of the Communal Award) should be touched upon.


6. Impact of industrialization in Europe during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

Demographic change, urbanisation, growth of classes.

(i) Workers’ Movements

Trade Union and Socialist Movements in Germany.

(ii) Suffragette Movement

Focus on Britain and WPSU: an account of demand for women’s right to vote until the election of 1919.

7. World War I: Events leading to it; major changes in warfare and strategy; peace settlements.

An outline of the main events from 1908 to 1914: the Moroccan crisis, the annexation of Bosnia- Herzegovina. The main interests of the big powers in the Balkans should be briefly touched upon, particularly Russia and Austria-Hungary, as well as the growth of Balkan nationalism and the two Balkan Wars; the assassination at Sarajevo and how it developed into a major European War.

Introduction of new technologies and strategies: trench warfare, use of gas, tanks, air warfare and submarines with one example for each.

Reasons for US’s entry into the War and a brief account of its contribution.

A brief explanation of the various causes for the defeat of the Central Powers.

League of Nations - membership, failure of collective security (Manchuria & Abyssinia). Changes in the map of Europe after the Paris Peace Settlements.

8. The Great Depression

Causes: A short account of the Wall Street Crash and its impact on the economy. Impact on Germany, Britain, France, USA & Japan.

9. Rise of Dictatorships

(i) Communism: Russia (1917-1939)

The Bolshevik Revolution of 1917 - a brief account of events in 1917: March Revolution and its results; explanation of why the Provisional Government fell from power leading up to the November Revolution.

Lenin: a background of consolidation of the Bolshevik state.

Stalin: Stalin vs. Trotsky; Single party state under Stalin: the collectivisation of agriculture, the FYPs (only first two should be done) and the purges.

(ii) Fascism: Italy (1922-39)

(a) Post-War discontent and the rise to power of Benito Mussolini.

Conditions which gave rise to Fascism; a brief chronological account of the events which brought Mussolini to power from the election of 1921 to the march on Rome in October 1922.

(b) Main features of Mussolini's domestic policy.

Critical appraisal of Mussolini’s policies (particularly his economic policy).

(iii) Nazism: Germany (1933-39)

(a) Rise of Hitler to power and factors assisting his rise.

Weaknesses of the Weimar Republic as a background to the rise of Nazism; events from 1932 onwards leading to Hitler becoming Chancellor of Germany in 1933; the reasons for his popularity among different groups should be explained.

(b) The Nazi State: from 1933 onwards.

Outline of the changes made by Hitler in government, the cultural life and education, army (the Night of the Long Knives), the economy and religious life. Escalation of the campaign against the Jews should be done in some detail, till the "Final Solution". Reasons why his policies were accepted among different groups.

(iv) Japan (1919-41)

Reasons for militarism in the 1930s; expansion into China. Events leading to the attack on Pearl Harbour.

The political, economic and ideological reasons for the rise of militarism and expansion into China should be explained (emphasis should be laid on the reasons for the attack on Manchuria and a brief account of it). The subsequent developments should be studied chronologically, emphasizing the declaration of a "New Order in East Asia" and the 1937 invasion of China. Reasons for the alliances with Italy and Germany should be briefly explained, leading to the attack on Pearl Harbour.