Semester 2 is of 40 marks. The syllabus consists of 4 units: (i) Sound (ii) Electricity and Magnetism (iii) Heat (iv) Modern Physics.
(ii) Natural vibrations, Damped vibrations, Forced vibrations and Resonance - a special case of forced vibrations.
Meaning and simple applications of natural, damped, forced vibrations and resonance.
(iii) Loudness, pitch and quality of sound
Definition of each of the characteristics and factors affecting them.
(i) Ohm's Law; concepts of emf, potential difference, resistance; resistances in series and parallel, internal resistance.
Concepts of pd (V), current (I), resistance (R) and charge (Q). Ohm's law: statement, V=IR; SI units; graph of V vs I and resistance from slope; ohmic and non-ohmic resistors, factors affecting resistance (including specific resistance) and internal resistance; super conductors, electromotive force (emf); combination of resistances in series and parallel.
Simple numerical problems using the above relations. (Simple network of resistors including not more than four external resistors. Internal resistance may be included).
(ii) Electrical power and energy.
Electrical energy; examples of heater, motor, lamp, loudspeaker, etc.
Electrical power; measurement of electrical energy, W = QV = VIt from the definition of pd. Combining with ohm's law W = VIt = I2Rt = (V2/R)t and electrical power P = (W/t) = VI = I2R = V2/R.
Units: SI and commercial; Power rating of common appliances, household consumption of electric energy; calculation of total energy consumed by electrical appliances; W = Pt (kilowatt x hour = kW h), simple numerical problems.
(iii) Household circuits - main circuit; switches; fuses; earthing; safety precautions; three-pin plugs; colour coding of wires.
House wiring (ring system) (diagrammatic representation excluded), main circuit (3 wires-live, neutral, earth) with fuse / MCB, main switch and its advantages, need for earthing, fuse, 3-pin plug and socket; Conventional location of live, neutral and earth points in 3 pin plugs and sockets. Safety precautions, colour coding of wires.
(iv) Magnetic effect of a current (principles only, laws not required); electromagnetic induction (elementary).
Oersted's experiment on the magnetic effect of electric current; magnetic field (B) and field lines due to current in a straight wire (qualitative only), right hand thumb rule - magnetic field due to a current in a loop;.
Electromagnets: their uses; comparisons with a permanent magnet; conductor carrying current in a magnetic field experiences a force, Fleming’s Left Hand Rule and its understanding, Simple introduction to electromagnetic induction; a magnet moved along the axis of a solenoid induces current, Fleming’s Right Hand Rule and its application in understanding the direction of current in a coil and Lenz’s law, Comparison of AC and DC.
(i) Calorimetry: meaning, specific heat capacity; principle of method of mixtures; Numerical Problems on specific heat capacity using heat loss and gain and the method of mixtures.
Heat and its units (calorie, joule), temperature and its units (°C, K); thermal (heat) capacity C' = Q/ΔT (SI unit of C'): Specific heat Capacity C = Q/mΔT (SI unit of C) Mutual relation between Heat Capacity and Specific Heat capacity, values of C for some common substances (ice, water and copper).
Principle of method of mixtures including mathematical statement. Natural phenomenon involving specific heat. Consequences of high specific heat of water. [Simple numerical problems].
(ii) Latent heat; loss and gain of heat involving change of state for fusion only.
Change of phase (state); heating curve for water; latent heat; specific latent heat of fusion (SI unit). Simple numerical problems. Common physical phenomena involving latent heat of fusion.
Radioactivity and changes in the nucleus; background radiation and safety precautions.
Brief introduction (qualitative only) of the nucleus, nuclear structure, atomic number (Z), mass number (A). Radioactivity as spontaneous disintegration. α, β and γ - their nature and properties; changes within the nucleus. One example each of α and β decay with equations showing changes in Z and A. Uses of radioactivity - radio isotopes. Harmful effects. Safety precautions. Background radiation.
Radiation: X-rays; radioactive fallout from nuclear plants and other sources.
Nuclear Energy: working on safe disposal of waste. Safety measures to be strictly reinforced.