ICSE Geography Class 10 Syllabus

Class 10 Geography

There is one paper of two hours duration carrying 80 marks and Internal Assessment of 20 marks. The Paper consists of two parts - Part I and Part II. Part I (compulsory) consists of two questions. Question 1 is based on Topographical Map. Question 2 is based on outline Map of India. In Part II, you are expected to answer any five questions.

Part - I: Map Work 

1. Interpretation of Topographical Maps

a. Identification of simple landforms marked by contours, triangulated height, spot heights, surveyed trees, bench marks, relative height and colour tints or other symbols on a topographical survey of India map.

b. Measuring distances using the scale given therein and marking directions between different locations, using eight cardinal points and indicated bearings.

c. Marking the site of prominent villages and/or towns, types of land use and means of communication with the help of the index given at the bottom of the sheet.

d. Identification of drainage and settlement patterns.

2 Map of India

A question is set to locate and label on an outline map of India. You are expected to locate and label the following items - mountains, plateaus, plains, rivers and water bodies, towns, coastal features, minerals, rainfall and wind 

Mountains and Plateaus: Himalayas, Karakoram, Aravali, Vindhyas, Satpura, Western and Eastern Ghats, Nilgiris, Garo, Khasi, Jaintia. Deccan, Chota Nagpur, Malwa Plateaus.

Plains: Indo-Gangetic Plains, Coastal plains - Konkan, Malabar, Coromandal and the Northern Circar.

Rivers: Indus, Ravi, Beas, Chenab, Jhelum, Satluj, Ganga, Yamuna, Ghaghra, Gomti, Gandak, Kosi, Chambal, Betwa, Son, Damodar, Bhrahmaputra, Narmada, Tapti, Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna and Cauveri, Tungabhadra.

Water Bodies: Gulf of Kutch, Gulf of Khambhat, Gulf of Mannar, Palk Strait, Andaman Sea and Chilka Lake.

Passes: Karakoram, Nathu-La Passes. 

Latitude and Longitudes: Tropic of Cancer, Standard Meridian (82° 30’E).

Direction of Monsoon Winds: South West (Arabian and Bay of Bengal Branches) North East Monsoon.

Distribution of Minerals: Oil - Mumbai High (Offshore Oil Field) Digboi. Iron - Singhbhum, Coal - Jharia.

Soil Distribution - Alluvial, Laterite, Black and Red Soil.

Towns - Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Hyderabad, Bangalore, Kochi, Srinangar, Vishakhapatnam, Allahabad.

Population - Distribution of Population (Densely and sparsely).

Part - II: Geography of India

3. Location, Extent and Physical features

Position and Extent of India. (through Map only) 

The physical features of India - mountains, plateaus, plains and rivers (through Map only)

4. The climate of India

Distribution of temperature, rainfall, winds in summer and winter and the factors affecting the climate of the area. Monsoon and its mechanism.

Seasons – March to May – hot and dry summer; June to September – South West Monsoon; October to November - retreating monsoon. December to February – cool and dry winter.

Map showing distribution of temperature, rainfall, and monsoon winds.

5. Soils in India

Types of soils (alluvial, black, red and laterite), composition and characteristics such as colour, texture, minerals, crops associated, soil erosion – causes, prevention and need for conservation. 

6. Natural vegetation of India

Types of vegetation (tropical evergreen, tropical deciduous, tropical desert, littoral and mountain), distribution and correlation with their environment, uses of important trees, need for conservation and various measures.

7. Water Resources

Importance of irrigation, means of irrigation, need for conservation, rain water harvesting. and its importance.

8. Minerals in India

Coal, petroleum, iron ore, manganese, bauxite, limestone – uses and their distribution.

9. Agriculture in India

Types of agriculture in India: shifting, subsistence, intensive, extensive, plantation, mixed, commercial. Indian Agriculture – problems and solutions.

Agricultural seasons (rabi, kharif, zayad), climatic conditions, soil, methods of cultivation, processing and distribution of the following crops: 

  • - rice, wheat, millets and pulses.
  •  - sugarcane, oilseeds.
  • - cotton, jute, tea, coffee, rubber.

10. Industries in India: - Agro based Industry and Mineral based Industry.

Agro based Industry - Sugar, Cotton Silk, Woollen and Jute Textiles.

Mineral based Industry - Iron, Steel, Heavy Engineering, Petro Chemical and Electronics.

11. Transport

Roads – Express Highways, National highways, Golden Quadrilateral, Railway – Narrow, Metre, Broad gauge, Air ways, Water ways – Major Sea Ports Advantages and disadvantages of these transport.

12. Waste generation and management

(a) Sources of waste - domestic, industrial, agricultural, Municipal, Medical and nuclear plants. Domestic waste: paper, glass, plastic, rags, kitchen waste, etc.

Industrial: mining operations, cement factories, oil refineries, construction units.

Agricultural: plant remains, animal waste, processing waste.

Municipal: sewage, degradable and non-degradable waste from offices, etc.

Biomedical waste: needles, syringes, soiled dressings, pathological waste from hospitals, medical labs.

Nuclear waste: radioactive waste.

(b) Impact of waste accumulation - spoilage of landscape, pollution, health hazards, effect on terrestrial, aquatic (fresh water and marine) life. Self-explanatory.

(c) Need for management of waste. Self-explanatory.

(d) Methods of safe disposal of waste - segregation, dumping, composting, drainage, treatment of effluents before discharge, incineration, use of scrubbers and electrostatic precipitators. Segregation of domestic waste into biodegradable and non-biodegradable by households; sweeping from gardens to be converted to compost; sewage treatment plants, incinerators in group housings.

(e) Need for reducing, reusing and recycling waste. Methods would involve governmental, social and individual initiatives.

Governmental initiatives: not building large dams for generating hydro electric power which leads to less land being submerged and less displacement of people. Improving efficiency of existing technologies and introducing new ecofriendly technologies.

Social initiatives: creating awareness and building trends of sensitive use of resources and products, e.g. reduced use of electricity, etc.

Individual: developing an ethical environmental consciousness e.g. refusing use of polybags, styrofoam containers, etc; reusing: plastic and glass containers; recycling: e.g. paper – this will reduce demand on wood and save trees.