ICSE Geography Class 10 Semester-1 Syllabus 2022

Semester 1 is of 40 marks. The syllabus consists of six units: Interpretation of Topographical Maps, Physical features, Climate, Soil Resources, Natural Vegetation, Water Resources.

1. Interpretation of Topographical Maps

(a) Locating features with the help of a four-figure grid reference.

(b) Definition of contour and contour interval. Identification of landforms marked by contours (steep slope and gentle slope), triangulated height, spot height and benchmark.

(c) Interpretation of colour tints used on a topographical survey of India map.

(d) Identification and definition of types of scale given on the map. Measuring direct distance and calculating area using the scale given therein.

(e) Marking directions between different locations, using eight cardinal points.

(f) Identify: Site of prominent villages and/or towns, types of occupation and means of communication with the help of the index given at the bottom of the sheet.

(g) Identification of drainage patterns (Dendritic, Trellis, Radial, and Disappearing) and settlement patterns (Scattered and Compact). Identification of direction of flow, left bank and right bank of a river.

(h) Identification of natural and man-made features.

(i) Meaning of important terms- Relative height / depth, broken ground, surveyed tree, fireline, causeway, aqueduct and diggi.

3. Location, Extent and Physical features

  • Position and Extent of India. (through Map only).
  • The physical features of India - mountains, plateaus, plains and rivers. (through Map only).

4. Climate

Distribution of Temperature, Rainfall, winds in Summer and Winter and factors affecting the climate of the area. Monsoon and its mechanism.

Seasons: March to May - Summer; June to September - Monsoon; October to November - Retreating Monsoon. December to February - Winter.

Study of climatic data.

5. Soil Resources

  • Types of soils (alluvial, black, red and laterite), distribution, composition and characteristics such as colour, texture, minerals and crops associated.
  • Soil Erosion - meaning, agents (water and wind), types (sheet and gully erosion) causes.
  • Soil conservation - Meaning and methods (terrace farming, crop rotation, planting of shelter belts and afforestation).

6. Natural Vegetation

  • Importance of forests.
  • Types of vegetation (tropical evergreen, tropical deciduous, tropical desert, littoral and mountain), distribution and correlation with their environment.
  • Forest conservation - meaning and methods (afforestation, re-afforestation, social forestry, and farm forestry)

7. Water Resources

  • Sources (Surface water and ground water).
  • Need for conservation and conservation practices (Rain water harvesting and its importance).
  • Irrigation: Importance and methods (wells, canals, tanks, drip irrigation, sprinkler irrigation - area, conditions and advantages).