ICSE Chemistry Class 10 Semester-2 Syllabus 2022
Semester 2 is of 40 marks. The syllabus consists of three units: (i) Metallurgy (ii) Study of Compounds (iii) Organic Chemistry.
(i) Occurrence of metals in nature
- Mineral and ore - Meaning only.
- Common ores of iron, aluminium and zinc.
(ii) Extraction of Aluminium.
(a) Chemical method for purifying bauxite by using NaOH - Baeyer’s Process.
(b) Electrolytic extraction - Hall Heroult’s process.
Structure of electrolytic cell - the various components as part of the electrolyte, electrodes and electrode reactions.
Description of the changes occurring, purpose of the substances used and the main reactions with their equations.
Definition, alloys of Aluminium (only constituent elements), properties and uses.
8. Study of Compounds
A. Hydrogen Chloride
Hydrogen chloride: preparation of hydrogen chloride from sodium chloride; refer to the density and solubility of hydrogen chloride (fountain experiment); reaction with ammonia; acidic properties of its solution.
- Preparation of hydrogen chloride from sodium chloride; the laboratory method of preparation can be learnt in terms of reactants, product, condition, equation, diagram or setting of the apparatus, procedure, observation, precaution, collection of the gas and identification (Tests).
- Simple experiment to show the density of the gas (Hydrogen Chloride) - heavier than air.
- Solubility of hydrogen chloride (fountain experiment); setting of the apparatus, procedure, observation, inference.
- Method of preparation of hydrochloric acid by dissolving the gas in water - the special arrangement and the mechanism by which the back suction is avoided should be learnt.
- Reaction with ammonia
- Acidic properties of its solution - reaction with metals, their oxides, hydroxides and carbonates to give their chlorides; decomposition of carbonates, hydrogen carbonates, sulphides, sulphites.
- Precipitation reactions with silver nitrate solution and lead nitrate solution.
Ammonia: its laboratory preparation from ammonium chloride and collection; ammonium salts. Manufacture by Haber's Process; density and solubility of ammonia (fountain experiment); aqueous solution of ammonia; its reactions with hydrogen chloride and with hot copper (II) oxide; lead monoxide (PbO) and chlorine; the burning of ammonia in oxygen; uses of ammonia.
- Laboratory preparation from ammonium chloride and collection; the preparation can be studied in terms of, setting of the apparatus and diagram, procedure, observation, collection and identification (Tests).
- Ammonia from ammonium salts using alkalies.
The reactions to be studied in terms of reactants, products, conditions and equations.
- Manufacture by Haber’s Process.
- Density and solubility of ammonia (fountain experiment).
- The burning of ammonia in oxygen.
- The catalytic oxidation of ammonia (with conditions and reaction)
- Its reactions with hydrogen chloride and with hot copper (II) oxide, lead monoxide (PbO) and chlorine (both chlorine in excess and ammonia in excess).
All these reactions may be studied in terms of reactants, products, conditions, equations and observations.
Aqueous solution of ammonia - reaction with sulphuric acid, nitric acid, hydrochloric acid and solutions of iron(III) chloride, iron(II) sulphate, lead nitrate, zinc nitrate and copper sulphate.
C. Nitric Acid
Nitric Acid: one laboratory method of preparation of nitric acid from potassium nitrate or sodium nitrate. Nitric acid as an oxidizing agent.
- Laboratory preparation of nitric acid from potassium nitrate or sodium nitrate; the laboratory method to be studied in terms of reactants, products, conditions, equations, setting up of apparatus, diagram, precautions, collection and identification. (Tests)
- Manufacture of Nitric acid by Ostwald’s process (Only equations with conditions where applicable).
- As an oxidising agent: its reaction with copper, carbon, sulphur.
D. Sulphuric Acid
Large scale preparation, its behaviour as an acid when dilute, as an oxidizing agent when concentrated - oxidation of carbon and sulphur; as a dehydrating agent -dehydration of sugar and copper (II) sulphate crystals; its non-volatile nature.
- Manufacture by Contact Process Equations with conditions where applicable).
- Its behaviour as an acid when dilute - reaction with metal, metal oxide, metal hydroxide, metal carbonate, metal bicarbonate, metal sulphite, metal sulphide.
- Concentrated sulphuric acid as an oxidizing agent - the oxidation of carbon and sulphur.
- Concentrated sulphuric acid as a dehydrating agent- (a) the dehydration of sugar (b) Copper (II) sulphate crystals.
- Non-volatile nature of sulphuric acid - reaction with sodium or potassium chloride and sodium or potassium nitrate.
- Identification and Tests for both dilute and concentrated sulphuric acid.
9. Organic Chemistry
(i) Introduction to Organic compounds.
- Unique nature of Carbon atom - tetra valency, catenation
- Formation of single, double and triple bonds, straight chain, branched chain, cyclic compounds (only benzene).
(ii) Structure and Isomerism.
- Structure of compounds with single, double and triple bonds.
- Structural formulae of hydrocarbons. Structural formula must be given for: alkanes, alkenes, alkynes up to 5 carbon atoms.
- Isomerism - structural (chain, position).
(iii) Homologous series - characteristics with examples.
Alkane, alkene, alkyne series and their gradation in properties and the relationship with the molecular mass or molecular formula.
(iv) Simple nomenclature.
Simple nomenclature of the hydrocarbons with simple functional groups - (double bond, triple bond, alcoholic, aldehydic, carboxylic group) longest chain rule and smallest number for functional groups rule - trivial and IUPAC names (compounds with only one functional group).
(v) Hydrocarbons: alkanes, alkenes, alkynes.
- Alkanes - general formula; methane (greenhouse gas). Complete combustion of methane and ethane, reaction of methane and ethane with chlorine through substitution.
- Alkenes - (unsaturated hydrocarbons with a double bond); ethene as an example.
- Alkynes - (unsaturated hydrocarbons with a triple bond); ethyne as an example of alkyne.
Only main properties, particularly addition products with hydrogen and halogen namely Cl2, Br2 and I2 pertaining to alkenes and alkynes.