ICSE Chemistry Class 10 Semester-1 Syllabus 2022
Semester 1 is of 40 marks. The syllabus consists of six units: (i) Periodic Properties and variations of Properties (ii) Chemical Bonding (iii) Acids, Bases and Salts (iv) Analytical Chemistry (v) Mole Concept and Stoichiometry (vi) Electrolysis.
1. Periodic Properties and variations of Properties
(i) Periodic properties and their variations in groups and periods.
Definitions of following periodic properties and trends in these properties in groups and periods should be studied:
- atomic size
- metallic character
- non-metallic character
- ionisation potential
- electron affinity
(ii) Periodicity on the basis of atomic number for elements.
- The study of modern periodic table up to period 4 and Group 2 [IIA] (students to be exposed to the complete modern periodic table but no questions will be asked on elements beyond period 4 - Calcium)
- Periodicity and other related properties to be explained on the basis of nuclear charge and shells (not orbitals).
(Special reference to the alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, halogen groups and inert gases).
2. Chemical Bonding
Electrovalent, covalent and co-ordinate bonding, structures of various compounds, electron dot structure.
(a) Electrovalent Bonding
- Electron dot structure of Electrovalent compounds NaCl, MgCl2, CaO.
- Characteristic properties of electrovalent compounds - state of existence, melting and boiling points, conductivity (heat and electricity), dissociation in solution and in molten state to be linked with electrolysis.
(b) Covalent Bonding
- Electron dot structure of non-polar covalent molecules on the basis of duplet and octet of electrons (example: hydrogen, chlorine, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon tetrachloride and methane.
- Polar Covalent compounds - based on difference in electronegativity: Examples - HCl, NH3 and H2O including electron dot structures.
- Characteristic properties of Covalent compounds - state of existence, melting and boiling points, conductivity (heat and electricity), ionisation in solution.
Comparison of Electrovalent and Covalent compounds.
(c) Coordinate Bonding
- The lone pair effect of the oxygen atom of the water molecule and the nitrogen atom of the ammonia molecule to explain the formation of H3O+ and OH- ions in water and NH4+ ion.
The meaning of lone pair; the formation of hydronium ion and ammonium ion must be explained with help of electron dot diagrams.
3. Study of Acids, Bases and Salts
(i) Simple definitions in terms of the molecules, their classification and characteristic properties.
(ii) Ions present in mineral acids, alkalis and salts and their solutions; use of common acid - base indicators and universal indicator, pH paper to test for acidity and alkalinity.
- Examples with equation for the ionisation/dissociation of ions of acids, bases and salts.
- Acids form hydronium ions (only positive ions) and alkalis form hydroxyl ions (only negative ions) with water and their effect on indicators.
- Definitions - Salts are formed by partial or complete replacement of the hydrogen ion of an acid by a metal or Ionic definition of salt (to be explained with suitable examples).
- Introduction to pH scale to test for acidity, neutrality and alkalinity by using pH paper or Universal indicator.
- Types of salts: normal salts, acid salt, basic salt, definition and examples.
4. Analytical Chemistry
(i) Action of Ammonium Hydroxide and Sodium Hydroxide on solution of salts: colour of salt and its solution; formation and colour of hydroxide precipitated from salt solutions of Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb; special action of ammonium hydroxide on solutions of copper salt and sodium hydroxide on ammonium salts.
On solution of salts:
- Colour of salt and its solution.
- Action on addition of Sodium Hydroxide to solution of Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Pb salts drop by drop in excess. Formation and colour of hydroxide precipitated to be highlighted with the help of equations.
- Action on addition of Ammonium Hydroxide to solution of Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Pb salts drop by drop in excess. Formation and colour of hydroxide precipitated to be highlighted with the help of equations.
- Special action of Ammonium Hydroxide on solutions of copper salts and sodium hydroxide on ammonium salts.
(ii) Action of caustic alkalis (NaOH, KOH) on aluminium their oxides and hydroxides.
5. Mole Concept and Stoichiometry
Vapour Density and its relation to relative molecular mass:
Molecular mass = 2×vapour density (formal proof not required)
Deduction of simple (empirical) and molecular formula from:
- the percentage composition of a compound.
- the masses of combining elements.
(i) Electrolytes and non-electrolytes.
Definitions and examples.
(ii) Substances containing molecules only, ions only, both molecules and ions.
- Substances containing molecules only, ions only, both molecules and ions.
- Examples; relating their composition with their behaviour as strong and weak electrolytes as well as non-electrolytes.
(iii) Definition and explanation of electrolysis, electrolyte, electrode, anode, cathode, anion, cation, oxidation and reduction (on the basis of loss and gain of electrons).
(iv) An elementary study of the migration of ions, with reference to the factors influencing selective discharge of ions (reference should be made to the activity series as indicating the tendency of metals, e.g. Na, Mg, Fe, Cu, to form ions) illustrated by the electrolysis of:
- Molten lead bromide
- acidified water with platinum electrodes
- Aqueous copper (II) sulphate with active and inert electrodes; electron transfer at the electrodes.
The above electrolytic processes can be studied in terms of electrolyte used, electrodes used, ionization reaction, anode reaction, cathode reaction, use of selective discharge theory, wherever applicable.
(v) Applications of electrolysis
Electroplating with nickel and silver; choice of electrolyte for electroplating.
Electro refining of copper.
Reasons and conditions for electroplating; names of the electrolytes and the electrodes used should be given. Equations for the reactions at the electrodes should be given for electroplating, refining of copper.