ICSE Biology Class 10 Semester-2 Syllabus 2022
Semester 2 is 40 marks. It contains one unit - Human Anatomy and Physiology with four chapters (i) Circulatory System (ii) Excretory System (iii) Nervous system (iv) Endocrine System.
3. Human Anatomy and Physiology
(i) Circulatory System: Blood and lymph, the structure and working of the heart, blood vessels, circulation of blood (only names of the main blood vessels entering and leaving the heart, liver and kidney will be required). Lymphatic system.
- Composition of blood (Structure and functions of RBC, WBC and platelets).
- Brief idea of tissue fluid and lymph.
- Increase in efficiency of mammalian red blood cells due to absence of certain organelles; reasons for the same.
- A brief idea of blood coagulation.
- Structure and working of the heart along with names of the main blood vessels entering and leaving the heart, the liver and the kidney.
- Concept of systole and diastole; concept of double circulation.
- Brief idea of pulse and blood pressure.
- Blood vessels: artery, vein and capillary to be explained with the help of diagrams to bring out the relationship between their structure and function.
- Brief idea of the lymphatic organs: spleen and tonsils.
- ABO blood group system, Rh factor.
- Significance of the hepatic portal system.
(ii) Excretory System: A brief introduction to the excretory organs; parts of the urinary system; structure and function of the kidneys; blood vessels associated with kidneys; structure and function of nephron.
- A brief idea of different excretory organs in the human body.
- External and internal structure of the kidney.
- Parts of the urinary system along with the blood vessels entering and leaving the kidney; functions of various parts of the urinary system (emphasis on diagram with correct labelling). A general idea of the structure of a kidney tubule/ nephron.
- A brief idea of ultra-filtration (emphasis on the diagram of malpighian capsule); selective reabsorption and tubular secretion in relation to the composition of blood plasma and urine formed.
(iii) Nervous system: Structure of Neuron; central, autonomous and peripheral nervous system (in brief); brain and spinal cord; reflex action and how it differs from voluntary reflex.
Sense organs - Eye: Structure, functions, defects and corrective measures: Ear: Parts and functions of the ear.
- Parts of a neuron.
- Various parts of the external structure of the brain and its primary parts: Medulla Oblongata, Cerebrum, Cerebellum, Thalamus, Hypothalamus and Pons; their functions.
- Reference to the distribution of white and gray matter in Brain and Spinal cord.
- Voluntary and involuntary actions - meaning with examples.
- Diagrammatic explanation of the reflex arc, showing the pathway from receptor to effector.
- A brief idea of the peripheral and autonomic nervous system in regulating body activities.
- Differences between natural and acquired reflex.
- External and Internal structure and functions of the Eye and Ear and their various parts.
- A brief idea of stereoscopic vision, adaptation and accommodation of eye.
- Defects of the eye (myopia, hyperopia hypermetropia, presbyopia, astigmatism and cataract) and corrective measures (diagrams included for myopia and hyperopia only)
- The course of perception of sound in human ear.
- Role of ear in maintaining balance of the body.
(iv) Endocrine System: General study of the following glands: Adrenal, Pancreas, Thyroid and Pituitary. Endocrine and Exocrine glands.
- Differences between Endocrine and Exocrine glands.
- Exact location and shape of the endocrine glands in the human body.
- Hormones secreted by the following glands: Pancreas: insulin and glucagon; Thyroid: only thyroxin; Adrenal gland: Cortical hormones and adrenaline; Pituitary: growth hormone, tropic hormones, ADH and oxytocin, TSH, ACTH, Gonado Tropic Hormones.
- Effects of hypo secretion and hyper secretion of hormones.