ICSE Biology Class 10 Semester-1 Syllabus 2022

Semester 1 is of 40 marks. The syllabus consists of two units: (i) Basic Biology (ii) Plant Physiology.

1. Basic Biology

(i) Cell Cycle and Cell Division

Cell cycle: Interphase (G1, S, G2) and Mitotic phase.

Cell Division:

  • Mitosis and its stages.
  • A basic understanding of Meiosis as a reduction division (stages not required).
  • A brief idea of homologous chromosomes and crossing over leading to variations.
  • Significance and major differences between mitotic and meiotic division.

(ii) Structure of chromosome

Basic structure of chromosome with elementary understanding of terms such as chromatin, chromatid, gene structure of DNA and centromere.

(iii) Genetics: Mendel's laws of inheritance

  • The three laws of Mendel.
  • Monohybrid cross - phenotype and genotype. Mendel’s experiments on inheritance taking 7 pairs of contrasting features of garden pea.
  • The following terms to be covered: gene, allele, heterozygous, homozygous, dominant, recessive, mutation, variation, phenotype, genotype, homologous chromosomes, autosomes, sex chromosomes.
  • Inheritance in Humans - A few characters and their traits. Tongue rolling as an example of inheritance.

2. Plant Physiology

(i) Absorption by roots, imbibition, diffusion and osmosis; osmotic pressure, root pressure; turgidity and flaccidity; plasmolysis and de-plasmolysis; the absorption of water and minerals, active and passive transport (in brief); the rise of water up to the xylem; forces responsible for ascent of sap. the importance of root hair.

  • Understanding of the processes related to absorption of water by the roots.
  • Characteristics of roots, which make them suitable for absorbing water.
  • Structure of a single full-grown root hair.
  • A general idea of Cohesive, Adhesive forces and transpirational pull.
  • Experiments to show the conduction of water through the xylem.

(ii) Transpiration - process and significance. Ganong's potometer and its limitations. The factors affecting rate of transpiration. Experiments on transpiration. A brief idea of guttation and bleeding.

  • Concept of transpiration and its importance to plants
  • Experiments related to transpiration:
    1. Loss in weight of a potted plant or a leafy shoot in a test tube as a result of transpiration.
    2. Use of cobalt chloride paper to demonstrate unequal rate of transpiration in a dorsiventral leaf.
  • Adaptations in plants to reduce transpiration.
  • A brief idea of guttation and bleeding.

(iii) Photosynthesis: the process and its importance to life in general; experiments to show the necessity of light, carbon dioxide, chlorophyll, formation of starch and release of oxygen.

  • The process and significance of Photosynthesis.
  • The internal structure of chloroplast to be explained to give an idea of the site of light and dark reactions.
  • Overall balanced chemical equation to represent photosynthesis.
  • Introduction of the terms "photochemical" for light phase and "biosynthetic" for dark phases.
  • Light reaction - activation of chlorophyll followed by photolysis of water, release of O2, formation of ATP (photophosphorylation) and NADPH.
  • Dark reaction - only combination of hydrogen released by NADP with CO2 to form glucose. (detailed equations are not required).
  • Adaptations in plants for photosynthesis.
  • Experiments with regard to the factors essential for photosynthesis; emphasis on destarching and the steps involved in starch test.